Driving Technologies for the Design of Additive Manufacturing Systems
In recent years, the Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, belonging to the most comprehensive Net Shape Forming family, has shown a growing trend due to the increasing quality of the built product. These results may open the application of the AM to the industrial field, moving the application from laboratories to the plant floor. This step requires machines capable of executing the technology process of AM with the requirements of the industrial environment, concerning, for example, production speed, reliability, robustness, and process stability. The design of such a type of machinery requires a systematic and multidisciplinary approach to reach these industrial targets. Indeed, the AM process involves several design technological issues, like temperature control of the material to be processed, characteristics of the energy source for material transition, control of the power transferred to the material, scanning system’s head control, 3D model’s layer definition, and generation of the laser point’s trajectories. The final product’s quality strongly depends on all these aspects, which are synergically linked to each other, as well as on the technical solutions to realize them. The paper presents an interdisciplinary approach to the design of machines for AM, based on the Powder Bed Fusion process and targeted at the industrial field. The technological platforms discussed in the paper are essential for such types of machines. The strategy proposed constitutes a base reference point for the definition of a methodological approach to the design of AM machinery.
Full Text: PDF
Molitch-Hou, M. (2018). Overview of additive manufacturing process. Additive Manufacturing, 1–38. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-812155-9.00001-3.
Edgar, J., & Tint, S. (2015). Additive Manufacturing Technologies: 3D Printing, Rapid Prototyping, and Direct Digital Manufacturing, 2nd Edition. Johnson Matthey Technology Review, 59(3), 193–198. doi:10.1595/205651315x688406.
Standard ISO/ASTM 52900:2015 (ASTM F2792). (2015). Additive Manufacturing—General Principles—Terminology. ISO: Geneva, Switzerland.
Zhang, J., Song, B., Wei, Q., Bourell, D., & Shi, Y. (2019). A review of selective laser melting of aluminium alloys: Processing, microstructure, property and developing trends. Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 35(2), 270–284. doi:10.1016/j.jmst.2018.09.004.
Krauss, H., Eschey, C., Zaeh, M. F. (2012). Thermography for Monitoring the Selective Laser Melting Process, Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference, Austin, Texas, USA, August 6-8.
Zeng, K., Pal, D., Stucker, B. (2012). A review of thermal analysis methods in Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting, Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference, Austin, Texas, USA, August 6-8.
Islam, M., Purtonen, T., Piili, H., Salminen, A., & Nyrhilä, O. (2013). Temperature Profile and Imaging Analysis of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel. Physics Procedia, 41, 835–842. doi:10.1016/j.phpro.2013.03.156.
Sharma, V., & Singh, S. (2020). To Study the Effect of SLS Parameters for Dimensional Accuracy. Advances in Materials Processing, 165–173. doi:10.1007/978-981-15-4748-5_17.
Morettini, G., Javad Razavi, S. M., & Zucca, G. (2019). Effects of build orientation on fatigue behavior of Ti-6Al-4V as-built specimens produced by direct metal laser sintering. Procedia Structural Integrity, 24, 349–359. doi:10.1016/j.prostr.2020.02.032.
Everton, S. K., Hirsch, M., Stravroulakis, P., Leach, R. K., & Clare, A. T. (2016). Review of in-situ process monitoring and in-situ metrology for metal additive manufacturing. Materials & Design, 95, 431–445. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2016.01.099.
Repossini, G., Laguzza, V., Grasso, M., & Colosimo, B. M. (2017). On the use of spatter signature for in-situ monitoring of Laser Powder Bed Fusion. Additive Manufacturing, 16, 35–48. doi:10.1016/j.addma.2017.05.004.
Grasso, M., Demir, A. G., Previtali, B., & Colosimo, B. M. (2018). In situ monitoring of selective laser melting of zinc powder via infrared imaging of the process plume. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 49, 229–239. doi:10.1016/j.rcim.2017.07.001.
Pinkerton, A. J. (2016). Lasers in additive manufacturing. Optics & Laser Technology, 78, 25–32. doi:10.1016/j.optlastec. 2015.09.025.
Padmakumar, M. (2020). Additive manufacturing of tungsten carbide hardmetal parts by selective laser melting (SLM), selective laser sintering (SLS) and binder jet 3D printing (BJ3DP) techniques. Lasers Manuf. Mater. Process, 7, 338-371. doi:10.1007/s40516-020-00124-0.
Ezair, B., Fuhrmann, S., & Elber, G. (2018). Volumetric covering print-paths for additive manufacturing of 3D models. Computer-Aided Design, 100, 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2018.02.006.
Fish, S., Booth, J. C., Kubiak, S. T., Wroe, W. W., Bryant, A. D., Moser, D. R., & Beaman, J. J. (2015). Design and subsystem development of a high temperature selective laser sintering machine for enhanced process monitoring and control. Additive Manufacturing, 5, 60–67. doi:10.1016/j.addma.2014.12.005.
Wulle, F., Coupek, D., Schäffner, F., Verl, A., Oberhofer, F., & Maier, T. (2017). Workpiece and Machine Design in Additive Manufacturing for Multi-Axis Fused Deposition Modelling. Procedia CIRP, 60, 229–234. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2017.01.046.
Yamazaki, T. (2016). Development of A Hybrid Multi-tasking Machine Tool: Integration of Additive Manufacturing Technology with CNC Machining. Procedia CIRP, 42, 81–86. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2016.02.193.
Mazumder, J. (2015). Design for Metallic Additive Manufacturing Machine with Capability for “Certify as You Build.” Procedia CIRP, 36, 187–192. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2015.01.009.
Phillips, T., Fish, S., & Beaman, J. (2018). Development of an automated laser control system for improving temperature uniformity and controlling component strength in selective laser sintering. Additive Manufacturing, 24, 316–322. doi:10.1016/j.addma.2018.10.016.
Hussain, G., Khan, W. A., Ashraf, H. A., Ahmad, H., Ahmed, H., Imran, A., … Abbas, G. (2019). Design and development of a lightweight SLS 3D printer with a controlled heating mechanism: Part A. International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture, 2(4), 373–378. doi:10.1016/j.ijlmm.2019.01.005.
Kowalski, A., & Waszkowski, R. (2020). Layout Guidelines for 3D Printing Devices. Applied Sciences, 10(18), 6333. doi:10.3390/app10186333.
Roos, F., Johansson, H., & Wikander, J. (2006). Optimal selection of motor and gearhead in mechatronic applications. Mechatronics, 16(1), 63–72. doi:10.1016/j.mechatronics.2005.08.001.
De Silva, C. W. (2005). Mechatronics: an integrated approach, CRC Press - Taylor & Francis Group, Florida, United States.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2020 Paolo Righettini, Roberto Strada